# AI News, CEMC artificial intelligence

- On 26. september 2019
- By Read More

## Looking at the learned representation: open set recognition in the embedding space

If you are keeping up with data science and machine learning, you probably know that in recent years, deep neural networks revolutionized artificial intelligence and computer vision.

They can learn how to turn winter landscapes to summer landscapes, put zebra stripes to a horse, learn semantic representations between words with basically no supervision, generate photorealistic images from sketches, and many more amazing feats.

The technology has advanced so far such that basically everyone with a notebook can use and build neural network architectures capable of previously unattainable feats.

Many open source deep learning frameworks — such as TensorFlow and PyTorch — are available, bringing this amazing technology to your arm’s reach.

However, besides improving performance, there is an equally significant area of deep learning research concerned with a set of questions related to understanding how neural networks perceive the world and how can a model generalize beyond what is known.

A naive approach would be to threshold the Softmax probabilities: if the probability of the predicted class is below a given threshold, say 0.5, we reject the item as unknown.

The prediction probabilities provided by our network may be wrong, but looking at the distribution of the points, it is clear that probably there is a new class.

By the distribution of the activation vector values, we can tell whether a new data point is novel in terms of knowledge.

In their experiments, they used an ImageNet pretrained model, fed it with real, fooling and open set images (that is, images from a class unseen in training);

With this method, they were able to improve the open set detection accuracy compared to the naive method, which would be based upon thresholding Softmax probabilities.

If you would see all of the vectors corresponding to our training dataset in this high dimensional space, you would probably think that the subsets corresponding to each class are pretty wild.

However, with each layer, it successively transforms the data to a representation more and more tangible, ultimately outputting a very simple one: a low dimensional simplex (generalization of a triangle in multiple dimensions), with each vertex corresponding to a class.

They introduce a new loss to push clusters further from each other and squeeze together the clusters themselves: The ii-loss can be attached to the embedding layer, giving rise to the following setups.

We have seen in the very first example that uncertainty is not a good way to recognize open set examples: a network can classify an unknown example as a member of a known class with very high confidence.

in their recent paper Reducing Network Agnostophobia, where they introduce two new loss functions to disentangle unknown examples from the known ones: the Entropic Open Set loss and the Objectosphere loss.

The first observation of the authors was that by visualizing the feature representation of MNIST digits and Devanagari handwritten characters for a network trained exclusively on MNIST, the unknown examples tend to be somewhat clustered around the origin.

To use this to our advantage, they have introduced a new loss called Entropic Open Set loss, which drives the Softmax scores of the unknown instances to the uniform probability distribution.

The Entropic Open Set loss doesn’t directly influence feature magnitude: close to optimal scores for unknown samples can still have large magnitude, as long as their activation scores are similar for each class.

As we can see, the second term forces samples in the known class to have large magnitude (top row), while forces unknown samples to have a small magnitude (bottom row).

In my personal opinion, the truly interesting questions about deep learning start when we are looking at how a neural network can generalize beyond the known.

- On 26. september 2019
- By Read More

## Les Maths et l'informatique dans les nouvelles

Famous 'sandpile model' shown to move like a traveling sand dune - Sand piles, fractals, and predicting earthquakes!

Quantum simulators wield control over more than 50 qubits, setting new record - Yet another step closer to Quantum control?

Math could help identify ways to limit cancer cell growth - Using math to predict how tumours grow can make treatment more precise and effective.

Math to the rescue: Students use equations to help peers safely cross the street - Winnipeg students are using quadratic equations in an attempt to win a Tech company's contest.

Playing the numbers game: 21st Century law will be based on math and data analytics - Many legal cases are won with the help of mathematicians.

A whole new world: Why Boston public schools are adopting a different map - Looking at a map of the world, you'd be forgiven for thinking Greenland is the same size as Africa or that Alaska is bigger than Mexico.

Simple math is why Elon Musk’s companies keep doing what others don’t even consider possible - Optimization of well known equations had surprisingly not been attempted before on this scale, before Musk arrived.

Machine learning models for drug discovery - IBM's new machine learning models help find new drugs for disease treatment.

An algorithm that knows when you'll get bored with your favourite mobile game - How long will it take for users to stop playing the latest smartphone games?

Fractal patterns in nature and art are aesthetically pleasing and stress-reducing - Fractals are a crucial factor when it comes to the visual appeal of art.

Mathematician breaks down how to defend against quantum computing attacks - Quantum computing will change how we handle data and we, as a society, are going to have to make some important decisions about how to prepare for it.

Here's the best way to shuffle a pack of cards - with a little help from some maths - Truly randomize a deck of cards with this mathematical shuffle!

Mathematical model predicts how we wait in line, traffic - Should we really wait in the shortest line in traffic?

How to escape a maze - according to maths - How can mathematical theory and algorithms generate and solve mazes?

Algorithm mimics evolution to aid disaster recovery - Algorithm balances short-term and long-term goals to distribute resources in disaster recovery.

How the brain recognizes faces - Can machines learn to recognize human faces?

Mathematics used to study pine beetle control methods - Mathematics can be used to control the spread of a forest pest.

Computer-brain implant helps patient with ALS to communicate - A successful test allows patient to interface with the world.

Hair-hunting computer benefits from deep learning - Similar algorithms might one day be used to identify skin cancer or improve self-driving cars.

The secret to a perfect cup of coffee could be math - Irish researchers aim to find the formula for the smoothest, most predictable, most efficient brew.

New research uses simple math to link CO2 emissions, vanishing Arctic sea ice - Each tonne that increases the atmosphere’s CO2 load costs the Arctic another three square metres of ice.

Researchers restore first-ever computer music recording - "It was a beautiful moment when we first heard the true sound of

Former teacher uses math skills to find fastest checkout line - Is the express checkout line the fastest choice?

How the Mathematics of Algebraic Topology Is Revolutionizing Brain Science - Nobody understands the brain’s wiring diagram, but the tools of algebraic topology are beginning to tease it apart.

Corvallis sculptor fuses art and math - Math inspires new forms of art.

Nature inspires applied math project that seeks to improve traffic flow - Can ants help optimize your commute time?

Solving the Mathematical Puzzle of the Artichoke - What mathematical properties does an artichoke have?

How Math Helps Fight Epidemics like Zika - Researchers employ mathematical and statistical modeling to battle infectious diseases.

Two-hundred terabyte maths proof is largest ever - A computer cracks the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem –

New method of producing random numbers could improve cybersecurity - A new method for producing truly random numbers could be used to encrypt data, make electronic voting more secure, conduct statistically significant polls and more accurately simulate complex systems such as Earth’s climates.

Google Releases New Tools to Help Computers Learn English - Meet Parsey McParseface, Google’s new tool for parsing spoken sentences into their grammatical parts.

The tricks to cutting cake fairly - In a major mathematical breakthrough, UNSW researchers devise a novel algorithm to divide cake evenly among more than three people.

Mathematician finds his 'new' solution to Poisson formula problem buried in 1959 paper - Yves Meyer was shocked to discover that another mathematician had formulated the exact same proof to solve the same problem that Meyer had been working on, though the solution had remained deeply buried and completely forgotten.

The Long Search for the Value of Pi - The search for the accurate value of pi led not only to more accuracy, but also to the development of new concepts and techniques, such as limits and iterative algorithms, which then became fundamental to new areas of mathematics.

Mathematicians provide solution to 78 year old mystery - An international team of researchers have developed a solution to a riddle related to “adaptation energy”

Hard mathematical problems as basis for new cryptographic techniques - New cryptographic algorithms have been created that are based on particularly hard mathematical problems.

Mathematicians Have Discovered a Prime Conspiracy - Prime numbers, it seems, have decided preferences about the final digits of the primes that immediately follow them.

AI crossword-solving application could make machines better at understanding language - A web-based machine language system solves crossword puzzles far better than commercially-available products, and may help machines better understand language.

This MIT algorithm predicts 'dangerous' waves - The ocean can be cruel and unforgiving.

Drawing Human Faces with Mathematics - Mathematics can be a powerful tool to create works of art.

Math reveals unseen worlds of Star Wars - Using a new computer program, researchers offer unusual insight into the universe of Star Wars, which includes more than 20,000 characters spread among 640 communities over a period of 36,000 years.

Software Detects CEO Emotions, Predicts Financial Performance - Computer programs that scan facial expressions have been used to detect whether people respond positively to commercials or whether hospital patients are in pain.

Math whizzes of ancient Babylon figured out forerunner of calculus - Ancient Babylonian astronomers used sophisticated geometric methods foreshadowing calculus to predict the positions of celestial bodies.

MIT’s New Algorithms Could Stop Catastrophic Drone Crashes - Autonomous drones often have to fly through treacherous terrain and unexpected obstacles.

This Futuristic Armbad Lets You Control Your Computer Like Magic - Rather than using special cameras that sense motion and depth, a startup company's armband detects a wearer's movement and translates them into computer controls.

Better Gut Microbiome Census through Computing - Microbes that live in all of us effect digestion, obesity, mood, and a few can cause serious illness.

New Prime Number Discovered at 22 Million Digits - A new prime number has been discovered –

Mathmatical proof for hot hand shooting in basketball - Perhaps the notion of a lucky streak can be explained by mathematics.

Programmable Plants: Synthetic biologists pave way for genetic circuits - Taking genetic engineering to the next level, researchers are creating modular, programmable genetic circuits that control specific plant functions.

Theorists Draw Closer to Perfect Coloring - A mathematician needed to seat 120 wedding guests, some of whom did not get along, at a dozen or so conflict-free tables.

The Importance of Recreational Math - Recreational mathematics is all about having fun with mathematical puzzles, games, and problems;

Complex problem made simple sends computer scientists wild - Normally a sedate bunch, theoretical computer scientists are humming with excitement.

Scientists design full-scale architecture for quantum computer in silicon - Quantum computers will far exceed our super computers of today;

Equation Works Out Kinks In Knot Math - Engineers devise experiments that teach them about knots, with applications in the medical field and beyond.

A New Map Traces the Limits of Computation - A major advance reveals deep connections between the classes of problems that computers can and can't possibly do.

How to Create Art With Mathematics - Can you generate aesthetically pleasing, symmetrical curves with two numbers and a simple mathematical function?

Maths whizz solves a master's riddle - An online collaboration between mathematicians solves 80-year-old problem.

The biggest mystery in mathematics: Shinichi Mochizuki and the impenetrable proof - If a mathematician solves a problem, but the proof is not easily understood, has the problem really been solved?

The search for a thinking machine - Is human level intelligence attainable by 2050?

How games, social media are changing the way people get hired - Powerful algorithms will now decide whether you hear “You’re hired”

Impossible Wallpaper and Mystery Curves: Exploring Symmetry in Mathematics and Art - Fusing mathematical and artistic creativity generates fascinating designs.

John Horton Conway: the world’s most charismatic mathematician - John Horton Conway is a cross between Archimedes, Mick Jagger and Salvador Dalí.

Artificial intelligence, human brain to merge in 2030s, says futurist Kurzweil - Will we be able to back up our brains using a computer within 15 years?

Voting machine password hacks as easy as "abcde", details Virginia state report- Insecure voting machines were used in Virginia for 12 years!

When the Mona Lisa is NP-Hard - Connecting the dots is harder then it looks.

Using Minecraft to unboggle the robot mind - Researchers use a virtual world to design robots that will be more helpful in the real world.

Math explains why beating Tetris is practically impossible - This is not a game that you can win.

The $23m house built by mathematics - Toronto home that doubles as a concert venue was designed by professor with 'science of curves'.

Google develops computer program capable of learning tasks independently - Working towards developing a computer program that can learn like a human.

Pagerank Algorithm Reveals World's All-Time Top Soccer Team - The stats explain who ranks where in soccer history.

How Data And A Good Algorithm Can Help Predict Where Fires Will Start - An algorithm that can remove the unpredictability from firefighting.

Pi Day of the Century - It was the most delicious day of the last one hundred years.

Wandering in the heavens: how mathematics explains Saturn’s rings - Astronomy, math and Newton's laws are combined to explain the discovery of Saturn's famous rings.

How computer science can help art historians - Computers can detect painting techniques invisible to the human eye.

The math of organ donation: Kidneys are an NP-hard problem - Integer programming is used to find a match.

Insightful mathematics for an optimal run - Math indicates the ideal way a runner can preserve energy.

Poker program Cepheus is unbeatable, claim scientists - A Canadian poker program just can't lose.

Exposing pokies using simple mathematics - Australian researchers are using mathematics to help gambling addicts.

Magic tricks created using artificial intelligence for the first time - A computer program generates mind reading card tricks for magicians.

Solving quadratics in pictures - Around 3000 years ago, Babylonians already knew about versions of the famous formula for solving quadratic equations.

How Pixar Uses Math to Make Characters Look Perfect - The amount of geometry used to make 3D animations might surprise you.

How to Solve the Famous Birthday Problem - What are the chances two players on the same soccer team share a birthday?

How Facebook is Changing the Way Its Users Consume Journalism - Algorithms play a crucial role in determining what news we read online.

Dissecting Gordon's odds of scoring - A critical decision was made with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning in the last game of baseball's World Series.

Combining math and music to open new possibilities - Math can be found everywhere we look, but now we are finding it in every sound we hear.

New algorithm could help 'cheetah' robot outrun humans soon - Earth's fastest land animal is mimicked using an algorithm to program its legs.

Mathematics key to eating pizzas - The curvature of a slice of pizza can ensure toppings won't end up on the floor.

Maryam Mirzakhani becomes 1st woman to win Fields Medal - History-making professor says math is fun -- "it's like solving a puzzle or connecting the dots in a detective case."

Balancing Bike-Sharing Stations Has Become a Serious Scientific Endeavor - Mathematicians and computer scientists are trying to determine how to shuffle bikes among stations so that one is always available when needed.

'Biggest price in science' announced - More than three million dollars awarded for groundbreaking work.

Of dinosaurs and mathematics - Mathematical data convinced palaeontologists to reclassify the origin of a dinosaur bone.

Turing test passed by computer - Is a recent achievement a historic milestone in the history of artificial intelligence?

World Cup Prediction Mathematics Explained - Are you using statistical analysis to predict the eventual winner of the 2014 FIFA World Cup?

Mathematicians put their own spin on the search for rare prime numbers - A new approach to the ongoing search for the largest prime numbers.

Computer maps 21 distinct emotional expressions -- even 'happily disgusted' - Researchers have found a way for computers to recognize 21 different facial expressions.

A new mathematics for experimental science - Applied mathematics, computer science and scientific experiments are being combined to produce revolutionary methods.

Knowledge transfer between computers: Computers teach each other Pac-Man - Computers teach each other how to play the classic game Pac-Man.

NHL teams ready to embrace advanced statistics - Hockey teams hope to gain an edge by keeping secret statistics.

Mathematicians calculate that there are 177,147 ways to knot a tie - Mathematicians have counted how many ways there are to knot a tie and you won't believe how many there are!

Model predicts growth, death of membership-based websites - Social networks are popular, but do they have a limited lifespan?

In the End, It All Adds Up to � 1/12 - What if all time and infinity added up to a negative number....?

Ancient Times Table Hidden in Chinese Bamboo Strips - The 2,300-year-old matrix is the world's oldest decimal multiplication table.

Canuck tech whiz nabs two sci-tech Academy Awards - Software engineer with UWaterloo mathematics degree recognized for creating movie magic.

Simple Mathematical Formula Describes Human Struggles - Would you believe that a broad range of human struggles can be understood using a mathematical formula?

BYU's smart object recognition algorithm doesn't need humans - Highly accurate system learns to decipher images on its own.

How math helps stop oil spills and plane crashes - Using math to make difficult decisions about risk.

Some Polynesian islanders combined binary and decimal math - A hybrid system combines the compactness of base 10 with the simplicity of the two-digit base 2.

Bringing mathematical modelling into the operating room - A University of Waterloo PhD student is helping develop math algorithms being used by surgeons working on infants.

How statistics can help cure cancer - Some of the best minds in medical research are working to understand one of the world’s biggest killers.

Physical finance - What's a theoretical physicist doing with mathematics in the financial world?

CT and 3-D Printers Used to Recreate Dinosaur Fossils -Just like Gutenberg's printing press opened the world of books to the public, digital datasets and 3-D prints of fossils may now be distributed more broadly.

A vexing math problem finds an elegant solution - Professor and graduate student provide a geometric solution to the von Neumann-Day problem.

Computer Searches Web 24/7 to Analyze Images and Teach Itself Common Sense - A computer program is doing its best to understand millions of images from the internet, gathering common sense on a massive scale.

The Coach Who Never Punts - A high school coach is using statistics to change the way football is played.

CSIRO software monitors Twitter to guide emergency services to fires - Breakthrough innovation uses eyewitness accounts on social media to map and respond to new outbreaks.

Tying Light In Knots - Knot theory may prove to be useful in unraveling the mysteries of light.

Saving digital art from an early death at the ZKM museum - A German museum's quest to save art created using obsolete technologies.

Quantum Computers: Trust Is Good, Proof Is Better - Can we just assume that quantum computers will always give us correct outputs?

The maths that saw the US shutdown coming - Can a new mathematical model predict the endgame of empires?

Accurate Computer Model of RNA Tetraloop - Researchers develop a computational model that helps scientists to

Computer program replicates artist sketches - Disney research has computers replicating abstract portraits.

Statistics and Magnetic Socks Shape Modern Tae Kwon Do - Can statistics reshape our understanding of this martial art?

Closing the gap between primes - Online collaborators are continually improving a celebrated recent result about twin primes.

One million dollar prize - Big money is at stake in the search for the solution to a problem harder than proving Fermat's Last Theorem.

Cells as living calculators - Engineers used bacterial cells to compute logarithms, divide and take square roots.

Math to combat natural catastrophes - Mathematical models can help prepare authorities for earthquakes and tsunamis.

'Pride and Prejudice' as a game theory textbook - Did Jane Austin use game theory in her 1800s classic novel long before its military applications in the Cold War?

Predicting box office success - The 'reigning mad scientist of Hollywood' uses statistics to analyze

On this day in 1897 - In the Indiana General Assembly a bill was introduced to legislate the value of pi.

Mathematics and what it means to be human - Few intoxicants are as dangerous to a mathematician as an audience of laypeople willingly listening to a math lecture.

Newton, the Man - Isaac Newton, a posthumous child bom with no father on Christmas Day, 1642, was the last wonderchild to whom the Magi could do sincere and appropriate homage.

Ancient air-conditioning - After 4000 years, we might understand why mediterranean courtyards are cool.

The Mighty Mathematician You’ve Never Heard Of - "few can match the depths of her perverse and unmerited obscurity."

As simple as abc - If Mochizuki’s proof is correct, it will be one of the most astounding achievements of mathematics of the twenty-first century.

How shopping overwhelms mathematical reasoning - Will that be 33% more coffee or 33% less for a cup?

Paradigm shift - Baseball has always been a game of numbers, but a new use of statistics is changing the game.

Stonehenge, aliens, your house and randomness - Every location in the UK is at the intersection of three or more lines from ancient monuments.

No competition when it comes to the job hunt - Mathematical careers occupy the top five jobs according to CareerCast and the Wall Street Journal.

Fruitful flies - How fruit fly biology can improve very large distributed computing performance.

A math-genius teenage hero coming to a theatre near you - An anime feature of a math prodigy and his love interest where virtual and real-world complications ensue.

The tales mathematicians (and computer scientists) tell - Donald Knuth is one of the best known computer scientists in the world.

Math is no match for locust swarms - It may be impossible to predict where they will strike next.

Pigeons beat humans at solving 'Monty Hall' problem - A famous probability puzzle fools most humans but not most pigeons.

Giraffes can swim, though poorly: study - Two mathematicians believe they have proved giraffes can swim.

Crop circle season arrives with a mathematical message - Mystery surrounds a mathematically designed shape which recently appeared in the countryside of Wiltshire, England.

Dan Snaith of Caribou brings energy to music and mathematics - How similar is composing a song to solving an equation or studying geometry?

Fake anti-virus software a growing threat - One should always be extremely cautious when downloading anything from the internet.

Reunited set of math problems gives clues to how Lincoln learned - Historians discovered a missing page of math problems written by Abraham Lincoln.

Flouridation may not do much for cavities - What does a Statistics Canada study on dental health mean for the controversy about fluoridation of drinking water?

Bathroom breaks could wait during gold-medal match - If the Olympics can cause an uneven demand for water, what other events might impact our use of the earth's resources?

Why women over 40 are good at math - Not only do female math students outperform men at Ontario's community colleges, but it's the 40-something female multi-taskers juggling jobs, families and mortgages who edge out their classmates of either sex at any age, new research shows.

Bad science, really bad science, out of this world bad science - No, we don't need aliens to explain this...

- On 26. september 2019
- By Read More

## Everyday AI Experiment: Six Lessons Learned From 7 AI Experiments

Over the past three years, I tried out multiple AI-enabled applications to increase productivity and save time.

As the power behind a variety of technology applications, AI has become part of our daily lives, such as the navigation app you use in your car, the smart speaker in your kitchen, or Siri on your iPhone.

Regardless of the technical terms, when I discuss to AI, I’m referring to the capability of machines to perform cognitive functions more typically associated with human abilities.

Businesses are increasing productivity by utilizing AI to automate repetitive tasks, generate new insights, and change how work gets done.

couple of years ago, JP Morgan Chase built their own AI, called COIN (short for Contract Intelligence), to review and interpret commercial finance contract documents.

COIN was able to complete, in a matter of seconds, what previously required the work of a team of legal staff and 350,000 hours over the course of a year.

Not only did this automation yield significant time savings and free up legal staff to focus on more important work, but COIN enabled a decrease in the number of errors stemming from human interpretation.

Today, leveraging this technology is about narrowly applied AI: the ability of machines to handle tasks in a manner that replicates—or even surpasses—human intelligence, harnessing the ability to perform these cognitive tasks consistently and at high speed.

While examining my business processes and work tasks, any time I’d find a repeatable process that I didn’t want to do, I would ask myself, “Is there an AI app for that?”

This one question has led to dozens of experiments, for all sorts of tasks ranging from navigation, to transcription, to building web pages, to improving my focus and staying on top of my bookkeeping.

- On 16. oktober 2021

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